Marco Polo was born around 1254 into a wealthy Venetian merchant family, though the actual date and location of his birth are unknown. Little is known about Marco’s early years except that he probably grew up in Venice. In the vast province of Gansu (called “Tangut” by Marco), an entirely different civilization—mainly Buddhist in religion but partly Chinese in culture—prevailed. Through his travels through ancient China he met a very famous Leader of a Clan. I am going to take a deep dive into Marco Polo Marine Ltd’s (SGX:5LY) most recent ownership structure, not a frequent subject of discussion among individual investors. His account of the Orient provided the western world with its first clear picture of the East’s geography and ethnic customs. 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The Polos apparently managed their affairs well at Berke’s court, where they doubled their assets. Omissions? He was considered very "Brave" because he sailed the Ocean of "Risk" of falling out of Earth. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Marco-Polo, Explorers, Pirates and Privateers - Biography of Marco Polo, LiveScience - Marco Polo: Facts, Biography & Travels, Marco Polo - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Marco Polo - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Polo’s adventures are recounted in his own writings, The Travels, where he describes the peoples, places, and customs of the East, including the fabulous court of the Khan. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He was born in Venice. Introduction. When political events prevented their return to Venice, they traveled eastward to Bukhara (Bokhara) and ended their journey in 1265, probably at the grand khan’s summer residence, Shangdu (immortalized as Xanadu by English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge). Through it all, Marco Polo marveled at China's cultural customs, great wealth and complex social structure. The wealth of new geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries, during the age of the great European voyages of discovery and conquest. Traveling east as far as Mongol emperor Kublai Khan’s summer residence, Shangdu, they established friendly relations with him before returning to Europe as his ambassadors. His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo (also known as Book of the Marvels of the World and Il Milione, c. 1300), a book that described to Europeans the then mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world, including the wealth and great size of the Mongol Empire and China in the Yuan Dynasty, giving their first comprehensive look into China, Persia, India, Japan and other Asian … Living among the emperor’s dominions, with his father and uncle, as an advisor and emissary for 16 or 17 years, he returned to Venice by way of Hormuz (aboard ship) and Constantinople (overland). The travelers probably stopped in Suzhou (“Sukchu”; now Jiuquan) and Ganzhou (“Campiciu”; now Zhangye) before entering the Ningxia area. in Xanadu did Kublai Khan the great Mongol leader meet and befriend Marco Polo, and together they invented a new game while trying to pass the … Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. This timeline covers his life and travels. Email. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Returning to Acre, they were given proper credentials, and two friars were assigned to accompany them, though they abandoned the Polos shortly after the expedition resumed. Updates? Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Marco Polo was one of the most important and famous explorers and writers from Europe; however, the details of his early life and person life are hard to discover. What is happening with the Marco Polo? The brothers Niccilo and Maffeo Polo left Venice and embarked on their first long sejour abroad when Marco was just a child.After staying in the Venetian qaurter of Constantinople for several years, the brothers realized that the political situation had grown precarious and decided to leave. Descending on the northeastern side of the chain, they reached Kashi (“Cascar”) in what is now the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. Before reaching Shazhou, the Polos had traveled primarily among Muslim peoples, though they also encountered Nestorian Christians, Buddhists, Manichaeans, and Zoroastrians. Marco Polo (1254-1324 CE) was a Venetian merchant and explorer who travelled to China and served the Mongol ruler Kublai Khan (l. 1214-1294 CE) between c. 1275 and 1292 CE. The three of them embarked on an … A name closely associated with exploration of this time is Marco Polo. Marco Polo was a Venetian explorer known for the book The Travels of Marco Polo, which describes his voyage to and experiences in Asia. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. I am going to take a deep dive into Marco Polo Marine Ltd’s most recent ownership structure, not a frequent subject of discussion among individual investors. They traveled the Silk Road to China where he met the great ruler Kublai Khan. The Polos had been on the road for only a few days when they heard that their friend Teobaldo had been elected pope as Gregory X. His account of his journeys inspired other adventurers, such as the explorer Christopher Columbus, who always carried a copy of Polo's book. Marco Polo changed the world by writing a book about his travels from Venice to the court of Kublai Khan in China. Marco Polo is important to history, in that he opened up trade and missionary routes from Europe to East India and China. This is the currently selected item. The family appears to have been shrewd, alert, and courageous; about 1260 they foresaw a political change in Constantinople (e.g., the overthrow of the Crusaders who had ruled since 1204 by Michael VIII Palaeologus in 1261), liquidated their property there, invested their capital in jewels, and set off for the Volga River, where Berke Khan, sovereign of the western territories in the Mongol Empire, held court at Sarai or Bulgar. He was among the first Europeans to visit this part of the world and was the first to record in detail the many things he observed there. Marco Polo studied the Chinese language, and it was not very long before he could speak it. Turning gradually to the northeast, they reached more hospitable lands; Badakhshān (“Balascian”), in Afghanistan, in particular, pleased the travelers. Marco Polo. 8.1—Exploration & Interconnection. Not realizing that the Mongol empire had already fallen by the time of his voyage, Columbus even planned to follow in Polos footsteps by making contact with Kublai Kahns successor. Marco Polo. Leaving Badakhshān, the Polos proceeded toward the Pamirs, but the route they followed to cross these Central Asian highlands remains uncertain. Marco Polo’s account in Il milione opened new vistas to the European mind, and, as Western horizons expanded, Polo’s legacy grew as well. 1 Questions & Answers Place. An Age of Adventure. China: The First Great Divergence. During the early part of 1272, they probably passed through Erzurum, in what is now eastern Turkey, and Tabrīz, in what is now northern Iran, later crossing inhospitable deserts infested with brigands before reaching Hormuz on the Persian Gulf. Activity: World Travelers. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. He brought back information that had been unknown before his time, and he inspired others to explore as well. They were first described by Marco Polo in his book The Travels of Marco Polo and since then have been named after him. They next traveled through deserts of “surpassing aridity” toward the Khorasan region in what is now eastern Iran. When will we ever see her again? Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The family had traded with the Middle East for a long time, acquiring considerable wealth and prestige. His account of t… Marco Polo, (born c. 1254, Venice [Italy]—died January 8, 1324, Venice), Venetian merchant and adventurer who traveled from Europe to Asia in 1271–95, remaining in China for 17 of those years, and whose Il milione (“The Million”), known in English as the Travels of Marco Polo, is a classic of travel literature. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. This would establish... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. That is only natural because Zheng He was part of a large government operation while Marco Polo was just a merchant unrecognized by the majority in Europe. He was age 15 or 16 when his father and uncle returned to meet him and learned that the pope, Clement IV, had recently died. Marco traveled much of China and the east, and his stories were written into a popular book. Marco Polo Marco Polo was an explorer who traveled from Europe to China and back. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Marco Polo was 17 or 18 when he began his journey from Venice to the farthest reaches of the Mongol empire. Hey, enjoy Marco Polo all you want, but I will judge you if you enjoy the character of Marco Polo more than any of the supporting leads. While in Asia, Marco Polo, his father and his uncle encountered a number of strange sights, and they even achieved some political success. As travel technology (e.g. There the Polos decided not to risk a sea passage to India and beyond but to proceed overland to the Mongol capital. They are also known as Pamir Argali or Marco Polo’s Argali. It is also believed that Marco visited territories to the south (other parts of Afghanistan, Kafiristan in the Hindu Kush, Chitral in what is now Pakistan, and perhaps Kashmir) during this period. Why Marco Polo Marine Ltd's (SGX:5LY) Ownership Structure Is Important By Simply Wall St Published July 20, 2018. Although it is uncertain if the Polos were of the nobility, the matter was of little importance in Venice, a city of republican and mercantile traditions. What navigation tools did Marco Polo use? Facts About Marco Polo Marco Polo was an Italian merchant adventurer. Marco Polo may be considered important to the Renaissance, as he seemed to embody the humanist ideals in his exploration via East India. According to his book, "The Travels of Marco Polo," Marco Polo even became an official in Kublai Khan's government, serving as an envoy, governor and member of the Privy Council. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Why is Marco Polo important to history? Why is she so important to Canadian history and Canadians in general? He was impressed with the empire's paper money, effi… answer! The Polos were likely shrewd, alert, and courageous; they traded with the Middle East and acquired considerable wealth and prestige. The Khan recognised the young man as precociously perceptive and, for the next 17 years, Polo travelled around his vast domain on various important missions for … Marco Polo’s writings on the places and cultures he witnessed were remarkable and exceptionally accurate – his sharing was valuable! Why is Marco Polo so Important? Marco Polo was very famous for his travels and stories he told from Ancient China. Who were her builders and travellers? Marco Polo never saw himself as an explorerhe preferred the term wayfarerbut his do-or-die approach to travel helped inspire a whole generation of globetrotting adventurers. Marco Polo works as an envoy for Kublai Khan When Marco Polo was about twenty-one Kublai Khan sent him on very important business to a distant part of China. Marco Polo was very famous for his travels and stories he told from Ancient China. The circumstances into which the world-famous explorer and writer Marco Polo was born were suitably epic. For over 3000 years the great Silk Road was the longest land route in the world. Among his acolytes was Christopher Columbus, who carried a well-thumbed copy of the The Travels of Marco Polo on his voyages to the New World. By this point the Polos were on the main Silk Road, and they probably followed along the oases to the south and east of the Takla Makan Desert—Yarkant (“Yarcan”), Hotan (“Cotan”), Che’erchen (“Ciarcian”), and Lop Nur (Lop Lake). Why Early Globalization Matters. Ibn Battuta. Marco Polo traveling in a caravan, illustration from the. In Acre (now ʿAkko, Israel) the papal legate, Teobaldo of Piacenza, gave them letters for the Mongol emperor. Marco Polo’s account in Il milione opened new vistas to the European mind, and, as Western horizons expanded, Polo’s legacy grew as well. Create your account. It is not clear whether they reached the Mongol summer capital of Shangdu (“Ciandu”) directly or after a detour; in any event, sometime in 1275 (1274, according to the research of Japanese scholar Matsuo Otagi) the Polos were again at the Mongol court, presenting the sacred oil from Jerusalem and the papal letters to their patron, Kublai Khan. Former Lecturer in Japanese, University of Florence. Become a Study.com member to unlock this In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. Marco Polo (c. 1254-1324) was a Venetian merchant and adventurer who made an extended, twenty-four year (1271-95), journey with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo into central Asia, including seventeen years spent in Mongol-controlled China. Marco Polo Bridge Incident, (July 7, 1937), conflict between Chinese and Japanese troops near the Marco Polo Bridge (Chinese: Lugouqiao) outside Beiping (now Beijing), which developed into the warfare between the two countries that was the prelude to the Pacific side of World War II. Exploration & Marco Polo As travel technology (e.g. Services, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Marco polo sheep bear the scientific name Ovis ammon polii and are among the 9 argali subspecies. At 17, he left Venice with his father and uncle. It is, however, difficult to establish which districts he traversed and which he may have described from information gathered en route. Activity: An Age of Adventure. The wealth of new geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries, during the age of the great European voyages of discovery and conquest. Writer. Marco suggests that they remained there for a year; detained, perhaps, by illness (possibly malaria) that was cured by the benign climate of the district. Marco Polo’s father, Niccolò, and uncle, Maffeo, continued this legacy. His father, Niccolo, and his uncle Maffeo were successful jewel merchants who spent much of Marco's childhood in Asia. But why the name Marco Polo sheep? Niccolò and Maffeo remained in Venice anticipating the election of a new pope, but in 1271, after two years of waiting, they departed with Marco for the Mongol court. Where is she now? Marco Polo was a merchant and an extremely ambitious for travel Silk Road around 1280 AD. Polo’s way was paved by the pioneering efforts of his ancestors, especially his father, Niccolò, and his uncle, Maffeo. He escorted a Mongol princess, with his father and uncle, by sea to Hormuz, and by land to Khorasan, during his return voyage to Venice. These stepping-stones led to Shazhou (“Saciu”) on the borders of China, a place now called Dunhuang. cartography, compass, ship-building) and curiosity increased through the first few centuries of the first millennium A.D., there was a surge of exploration throughout Europe for the purposes of trade, enlightenment and missionary work. Marco Polo (1254-1329) has achieved an almost archetypal status as a traveller, and his Travels is one of the first great travel books of Western literature, outside the ancient world. He did the work well and from that time was often employed as an envoy of the Chinese monarch. Author of, Marco Polo's travels to Asia (1271–95), immortalized in his. Back then thought Earth was flat. Marco's mother died when he was young; therefore, young Marco was primarily raised by extended family.\"The merchant families were the movers and shakers of commerce an… All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Find answers now! 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