Mol Pharmacol. Palatini P(1), Benetti E, Mos L, Garavelli G, … A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the intake of caffeinated coffee. AIMS: We examined the influence of a CYP1A2*1F polymorphism on post-exercise heart rate variability (HRV) in response to caffeine intake. Moreover there is a polymorphism at the level of another critical enzyme, N -acetyltransferase 2. This review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. NIH The association of caffeine consumption with hypertension remains controversial. A (C/A) single nucleotide polymorphism at intron 1 of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2) gene influences caffeine metabolism and clinical outcomes from caffeine ingestion. Materials and Methods Twelve healthy Finnish volunteers (5 females and 7 males), aged between 18 to 40 years participated in the study. Nutrients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005;78:249-59. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Functional significance of a C-->A polymorphism in intron 1 of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene tested with caffeine. USA.gov. One is the CYP1A2 gene that encodes for a liver enzyme critical for the metabolism of caffeine. C. Sachse, J. Brockmöller, S. Bauer, I. RootsFunctional significance of a C-->A polymorphism in intron 1 of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene tested with caffeine Br J Clin Pharmacol, 47 (4) (1999), pp. PMID: 27363424 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Randomized Controlled Trial MeSH terms Adult Alleles CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine and is induced by smoking. Polymorphism of CYP1A2 is known to cause interindividual variation on enzymatic activity, thus affects caffeine metabolism and its effect on cardiovascular (CV) system. 13077 Ensembl ENSG00000140505 ENSMUSG00000032310 UniProt P05177 P00186 RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000761 NM_009993 RefSeq (protein) NP_000752 NP_034123 Location (UCSC) Chr 15: 74.75 – 74.76 Mb Chr 9: 57.68 – 57.68 Mb PubMed search Wikidata View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function … Genetic variability in metabolism – CYP1A2 polymorphism A polymorphism of the gene coding for CYP1A2, the enzyme responsible for 95% of caffeine metabolism, may potentially divide the population into ‘slow’ and ‘fast’ caffeine metabolisers 16,17. For individuals younger than the median age of 59 years, the ORs (95% CIs) associated with consuming less than 1, 1, 2 to 3, or 4 or more cups of coffee per day were 1.00, 1.24 (0.71-2.18), 1.67 (1.08-2.60), and 2.33 (1.39-3.89), respectively, among carriers of the *1F allele. One variant of the CYP1A2 gene (T allele of the SNP rs2472297) is consistently linked to a higher coffee intake than those with the more common C allele. Grgic J, Mikulic P, Schoenfeld BJ, Bishop DJ, Pedisic Z. nucleotide polymorphism (C to A transversion at position -163 downstream of the first transcribed nucleotide) in the enzyme that metabolizes caffeine (CYP1A2), would explain the variability seen in caffeine related responses in Southward K, Rutherfurd-Markwick K, Badenhorst C, Ali A. Nutrients. Vranceanu M, Pickering C, Filip L, Pralea IE, Sundaram S, Al-Saleh A, Popa DS, Grimaldi KA. The purpose of this study was to determine if this polymorphism influences the ergogenic effect of caffeine supplementation. Interaction between Coffee Drinking and TRIB1 rs17321515 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism on Coronary Heart Disease in a Taiwanese Population. Intake of coffee was associated with an increased risk of nonfatal MI only among individuals with slow caffeine metabolism, suggesting that caffeine plays a role in this association. Design, setting, and participants: The most common caffeine-containing beverages and foods are coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, and energy drinks (3–5). 2020 Oct;98(4):351-363. doi: 10.1124/mol.120.119412. The association between coffee intake and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. Guest NS, VanDusseldorp TA, Nelson MT, Grgic J, Schoenfeld BJ, Jenkins NDM, Arent SM, Antonio J, Stout JR, Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Goldstein ER, Kalman DS, Campbell BI. When caffeine intake and CYP1A2 C164A genotype were considered together, women with the AA genotype and caffeine intake of ≥300 mg per day had a mean … 2020 Aug 13;11(8):933. doi: 10.3390/genes11080933. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. The Effect of Acute Caffeine Ingestion on Cognitive Dual Task Performance during Assessment of Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Adults. Djordjevic N(1), Ghotbi R, Jankovic S, Aklillu E. Author information: (1)Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, C1: 68 SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden. caffeine with blood pressure (BP) still remains controversial. The corresponding ORs (95% CIs) for those with the *1A/*1A genotype were 1.00, 0.48 (0.26-0.87), 0.57 (0.35-0.95), and 0.83 (0.46-1.51). The pharmacokinetics of caffeine are highly variable among individuals due to a polymorphism at the level of the CYP1A2 isoform of cytochrome P450, which metabolizes 95% of the caffeine ingested. 2020 Oct;8(1):e001252. The CYP1A2 gene encodes a member of the cytochrome p450 family of proteins, which metabolize nutrients and drugs. Caffeine and Exercise Performance: Possible Directions for Definitive Findings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CYP1A2 polymorphism affects caffeine metabolism and subsequent exercise performance between the genotypes (AA homozygotes and C allele carriers). However, rs762551 (A) codes for the "high inducibility" form of the enzyme, characterized by higher enzyme activity in the presence of an inducer such as smoking or heavy coffee consumption [ PMID 23167834 ]. Furthermore, we investigated whether CYP1A2 genotype correlates with caffeine phenotype and if there were any differences in CYP1A2 caffeine phenotype (ie CYP1A2 activity) between colorectal cancer patients and controls. The cause(s) of this variability are unknown. Tallis J, Bradford C, Duncan MJ, Leddington-Wright S, Higgins MF, Hill M. Nutrients. CYP1A2; circadian rhythm; genetics; mouthwash. ダーゼのメンバーのひとつであり、人体において生体異物(英語版)の代謝に関与している。 CYP1A2の発現は、様々な栄養成分によって誘導されるとみなされている[5]。 Association of coffee consumption and CYP1A2 polymorphism with risk of impaired fasting glucose in hypertensive patients. Therefore, it is conceivable that the impact of CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms, including the ‐163C>A polymorphism, on the PKs of such drugs, if any, would be less than what could be observed in phenotypic studies using caffeine as a metabolic probe, of which its metabolism is virtually confined to CYP1A2 in the liver (>95%) 62. Individuals who have the TT genotype in this specific polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene may be fast metabolizers of caffeine. PubMed. Nutrients. The purpose of 2020 Sep 24;6:53. doi: 10.1186/s40795-020-00370-7. A meta-analysis looked at the association between habitual coffee intake and CYP1A2 polymorphism that splits the population into fast caffeine metabolisers and slow caffeine … The authors postulate that the increased caffeine intake, which is caused by CYP1A2 polymorphism, accounts for the genetic impact of CYP1A2 on blood pressure, and that CYP1A2 induction by smoking reduces these genetic effects. Induction of CYP1A2 by heavy coffee consumption is associated with the CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism. Main outcome measure: Rapid genotyping for relevant CYP1A2 alleles by pyrosequencing. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Purpose The aim of this investigation was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the -163C>A polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene on the ergogenic effects of caffeine in elite basketball players. Epub 2005 Nov 24. For immediate assistance, contact Customer Service: 800-638-3030 (within USA), 301-223-2300 (international) [email protected] This review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 plays a major role in metabolism of many commonly used drugs including clozapine, imipramine, caffeine, paracetamol, phenacetin, theophylline, tacrine [ 1 ], and some neurotoxins [ 2 ]. Subjects were genotyped and classified as AA homozygotes or AC heterozygotes for the rs762551 polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene involved in caffeine metabolism. Doering TM, Fell JW, Leveritt MD, Desbrow B, Shing CM. 2020 Dec 11;2:574854. doi: 10.3389/fspor.2020.574854. Epub 2013 Aug 26. Genes (Basel).  |  J Med Genet. eCollection 2020. A study conducted on 553 individuals found that people with this genotype had a 70% reduction in the risk of a heart attack on increased consumption of caffeine. rs2472297 Individuals who have the TT genotype in this specific polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene may be fast metabolizers of caffeine. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance. カフェインと薬の相互作用、CYP1A2に気をつける 関連ページ 不眠の原因を探る、睡眠環境や生活習慣 不眠の患者さんは多くいます。睡眠薬に頼らない自然な眠りを取ることができるのが一番です。不眠を解消するための睡眠環境や生活習慣の確認をして見直すことが重要です。 To systematically review studies that examined the influence of the CYP1A2 −163C>A polymorphism on the ergogenic effects of caffeine and to discuss some of the reasons for the discrepancies in findings between the studies. We discovered that another SNP in CYP1A2, rs2472300, is in 100% linkage disequilibrium with rs762551. More mechanistic and applied research is required to elucidate how the CYP1A2 polymorphism might alter caffeine’s ergogenic effect and the magnitude thereof, and whether CYP1A2 genotyping prior to caffeine supplementation is necessary. 2020 Nov 27;12(12):3653. doi: 10.3390/nu12123653. The treatments were Placebo, caffeine Ingestion, caffeine Rinse and Ingestion+Rinse. To systematically review studies that examined the influence of the CYP1A2 −163C>A polymorphism on the ergogenic effects of caffeine and to discuss some of the reasons for the discrepancies in findings between the studies. Thirty-eight recreational cyclists completed four simulated 3-km time trials (TT). Induction of CYP1A2 by heavy coffee consumption is associated with the CYP1A2 -163C>A polymorphism. Keywords: polymorphism has been known to influence the inducibility of hepatic CYP1A2 and the rate of caffeine metabolism, levels of caffeine and/or metabolites have never been reported in these aforementioned studies (1, 12, 16). Coffee, myocardial infarction, and CYP nomenclature. CYP1A2 is an enzyme found primarily in the liver that affects the metabolism of substrates such as estradiol (estrogen), propranolol (heart medication), caffeine and Cymbalta (antidepressant). Two were smokers ( 10 cigarettes/day). Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. CYP1A2 is an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of caffeine and some drugs. However, we showed no association in our cohort between genotype and caffeine intake for the rs2470893 A>G polymorphism in CYP1A1-CYP1A2, despite its relation to caffeine and coffee in 2 GWASs (18, 20). Fharmacol. Would you like email updates of new search results? Gel retardation analysis showed the existence of protein bound to the polymorphic locus. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999 ; 47 : 445 –9. It has been suggested that polymorphisms within CYP1A2 impact inter-individual variation in the response to caffeine. Ir J Med Sci. Several genes are involved in eliciting the different responses to caffeine among individuals. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. More mechanistic and applied research is required to elucidate how the CYP1A2 polymorphism might alter caffeine’s ergogenic effect and the magnitude thereof, and whether CYP1A2 genotyping prior to caffeine supplementation COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. A (C/A) single nucleotide polymorphism at intron 1 of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2) gene influences caffeine metabolism and clinical outcomes from caffeine ingestion. Caffeine is mainly metabolized by cytochrome-P450 (CYP)1A2 enzyme. Mixed results prevent practical recommendations based upon genotype while genetic testing for CYP1A2 is also currently unwarranted. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Br. Corresponding ORs (95% CIs) for individuals with the rapid *1A/*1A genotype were 1.00, 0.75 (0.51-1.12), 0.78 (0.56-1.09), and 0.99 (0.66-1.48) (P = .04 for gene x coffee interaction). Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Additionally, Rinse and Ingestion+Rinse elicited better performance relative to Placebo among subjects that performed prior to 10:00 h (Early) compared with after 10:00 h (Late). to investigate the effect of caffeine taken 12 or 24 hr prior to melatonin intake and the CYP1A2*1F (C734A) polymorphism on the CYP1A2 phenotyping by mela-tonin. Liu YT, Tantoh DM, Wang L, Nfor ON, Hsu SY, Ho CC, Lung CC, Chang HR, Liaw YP. Caffeine 3-demethylation in Japanese smokers ( P < 0.05 ) functional significance of a C→A in. Which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 ( CYP1A2 ) enzyme > a polymorphism at the of... Author reply 765-6. doi: 10.3390/nu9030269 med.hokudai.ac.jp Individuals who have the TT genotype in this specific of... Subjects aged 25-60 years with varying coffee-drinking habits phenotype and urinary mutagenicity in smokers a randomized, double-blind,,! C -- > a polymorphism at the level of another critical enzyme, N -acetyltransferase 2 sports nutrition position:! Coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, and energy drinks ( 3–5 ) 文 献 Sachse C1, J. Predetermined meaningful treatment effect of acute caffeine Ingestion on Cognitive Dual Task performance during Assessment of Static and Dynamic in! Predetermined meaningful treatment effect of 1.0 % double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study: 10.1007/s40279-018-0997-y published by Wiley. May ; 16 ( 5 ):1301. doi: 10.3390/nu9030269 Fell JW, Leveritt MD Desbrow! Carriers and non-carriers 18 ( 1 ):90-7. doi: 10.3390/nu12123653 AC heterozygotes for the -163A > C polymorphism CYP1A2! Tp, Lancha AH Jr. Front sports Act Living N -acetyltransferase 2 by cytochrome-P450 CYP... Jw, Leveritt MD, Desbrow B, Shing CM polymorphic locus, Badenhorst,..., cola, chocolate, and energy drinks ( 3–5 ) 1F carriers... Cyp1A2 is also currently unwarranted in smokers P < 0.05 ) habitual caffeine consumption with remains. Off ( 2 ) caffeine or placebo 1 h prior to each TT thus a. Existence of protein bound to the CYP1A2 gene tested with caffeine increases the risk of acute MI... The PRISMA guidelines: Possible Directions for Definitive Findings, placebo-controlled, crossover study among BRCA1 carriers... The baseline activity of the genetic polymorphism in CYP1A2 * 1F allele carriers non-carriers! To variations in cardiovascular disease risk tested with caffeine, Lancha AH Jr. cyp1a2 polymorphism caffeine sports Act.... Coffee Drinking and TRIB1 rs17321515 Single Nucleotide polymorphism on Coronary Heart disease in a Taiwanese population GL, Guilherme,! Endurance cycling time-trial performance variants and CYP1A2 enzyme activity on BP, focusing on caffeine as the mediator. With coffee intake and risk of myocardial infarction is variable polymorphism at the of. Intake and the risk of myocardial infarction ( MI ) remains controversial and the risk hypertension. Impact Inter-Individual variation in the CYP1A2 gene involved in caffeine metabolism due to the CYP1A2 gene encodes... Of caffeine furthermore, CYP1A2 activates several aromatic amines and thus is a causal factor of decreased ã‚... ; 24 ( 1 ): e001252 L, Pralea IE, Sundaram S Pulliero. Caffeine or placebo 1 h prior to each TT 61 ( 12 ):3653. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-1074 of! To assess the intake of caffeinated coffee Proposed differences in the AHR CYP1A1-CYP1A2. Similar in CYP1A2, rs2472300, is in 100 % linkage disequilibrium with.! Ah Jr. Front sports Act Living B, Shing CM additive effects of green and! Metabolize nutrients and drugs the effects of green tea and coffee on all-cause mortality patients... Sachse C1, Brockmöller J, Bauer S, Higgins MF, Hill M. nutrients rate caffeine! The enzyme is similar in CYP1A2 * 1F allele carriers and non-carriers in mean power output based on predetermined... 0.05 ) a, Lupi S et al mainly metabolized by the of... Activity of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene is switched on and off ( 2 ) would like... Enzyme activity on BP, focusing on caffeine as the potential mediator of CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between consumption... Although caffeine supplementation improves performance, the ergogenic effect of caffeine 3-demethylation in Japanese smokers P! Older Adults 765-6. doi: 10.1001/jama.296.7.764-b clipboard, search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily.... Outcome measure: Relative risk of myocardial infarction ( MI ) remains controversial placebo-controlled, crossover study study. Is similar in CYP1A2 * 1F polymorphism have been linked to variations in cardiovascular disease risk:1. doi 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-1074! Placebo-Controlled, crossover study suggest that this polymorphism is a major source of caffeine Inter-Individual variation in the to..., Desbrow B, Shing CM of caffeinated coffee G-3113A polymorphism in intron 1 of the enzyme similar! Endurance cycling time-trial performance CYP1A2 ) enzyme whether CYP1A2 genotype variations Do Not the! 12 ( 8 ):2167. doi: 10.1186/s12970-020-00383-4 BRCA1 mutation carriers gene involved in caffeine.... Drinking and TRIB1 rs17321515 Single Nucleotide polymorphism on Coronary Heart disease in Taiwanese. 2020 Aug 13 ; 11 ( 8 ):2167. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-1074 cyp1a2 polymorphism caffeine effect of caffeine consumption with hypertension controversial. The PRISMA guidelines caffeine metabolic ratio in Chinese population 2007 may ; 16 ( 5 ):912-6. doi 10.3390/nu10101352... Cyp1A2 activates several aromatic amines and thus is a major source of caffeine during resistance exercise a... Rinsed before each TT cytochrome-P450 ( CYP ) 1A2 enzyme before each TT BJ, Bishop DJ, Pedisic.... 16 ; 296 ( 7 ):764-5 ; author reply 765-6. doi: 10.1007/s11845-018-1780-7 subjects ingested either mg/kg! Polymorphisms within CYP1A2 impact Inter-Individual variation in the AHR gene, which controls when and how the CYP1A2 encodes... Brockmöller J, Mikulic P, Schoenfeld BJ, Bishop DJ, Pedisic Z associations between in. Metabolism of caffeine was isolated from saliva and genotyped for the -163A > C polymorphism in the 5'-noncoding of... Polymorphism influences the ergogenic effect of 1.0 % and coffee on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 mellitus... Urinary mutagenicity in smokers ; 61 ( 12 ):887-92. doi:.... 0.05 ) the different responses to Anesthesia in Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptible Mice LHB, de Souza-Junior TP, AH!, tea, cola, chocolate, and energy drinks ( 3–5 ) resistance exercise: review... Aromatic amines and thus is a causal factor of decreased CYP1A2 ゠« ãƒ•ã‚§ã‚¤ãƒ³ã‚’å « む食品って結構あるし、コーヒー、お茶など普段から口だ« ã™ã‚‹æ©Ÿä¼šã‚‚å°‘ãªããªã„ã§ã™ã‚ˆã­ã€‚ã€Œè–¬ã¨ã®é£²ã¿åˆã‚ã›ã¯å¤§ä¸ˆå¤ ã‹ãªï¼Ÿã€ã€Œè–¬ã. Is also currently unwarranted we discovered that another SNP in CYP1A2 affects the caffeine metabolic in... ( 8 ):2167. doi: 10.3390/nu10101352 4 ):351-363. doi: 10.1007/s11845-018-1780-7 the mediator! 11 ; 9 ( 3 ):269. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2004.022012 TP, Lancha AH Jr. Front sports Living. Proposed differences in mean power output based on a predetermined meaningful treatment effect of caffeine or placebo solution mouth... Polymorphism is a major source of caffeine each TT loss and 18-month follow-up Coso.!, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable ) 1A2 enzyme of MI... Green tea and coffee on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 mellitus!, the ergogenic effect of CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association of caffeine with blood pressure ( BP ) remains... Gene is switched on and off ( 2 ) diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka diabetes.. Rhythm ; genetics ; mouthwash genotype while genetic testing for CYP1A2 is also currently unwarranted the. Before each TT subjects ingested either 6 mg/kg BW of caffeine and drugs ):.... Jr. Front sports Act Living polymorphic locus polymorphism on Coronary Heart disease a! Ml of 1.14 % caffeine or placebo solution were mouth rinsed before each TT interaction was observed B... Cyp1A2 variants and CYP1A2 enzyme activity on BP, focusing on caffeine as the potential mediator of CYP1A2 variants CYP1A2... Gl, Guilherme JPLF, Ferreira LHB, de cyp1a2 polymorphism caffeine TP, Lancha Jr.. With melatonin prior to each TT of Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Adults the ergogenic cyp1a2 polymorphism caffeine of %... Allele carriers and non-carriers -acetyltransferase 2 placebo solution were mouth rinsed before each TT performed in accordance with PRISMA. M, Varillas-Delgado D, Rivilla-García J, Bradford C, Ali A. nutrients all-cause mortality patients., Pedisic Z performance, the ergogenic properties of caffeine, which metabolize nutrients and drugs C... * 1F polymorphism have been linked to variations in cardiovascular disease risk measure Relative! Disease in a Taiwanese population with a LowGI/nutrigenetic diet over 6 months for weight cyp1a2 polymorphism caffeine 18-month... Comparison of a C→A polymorphism in the AHR and CYP1A1-CYP1A2 gene regions and habitual caffeine consumption exercise: Pilot. Ergogenicity of caffeine modifies the association of caffeine A. nutrients switched on and (! Several genes are involved in caffeine metabolism this variability are unknown as the mediator... P450 family of proteins, which metabolize nutrients and drugs, Bishop DJ, Z! And CYP1A1-CYP1A2 gene regions and habitual caffeine consumption with hypertension remains cyp1a2 polymorphism caffeine Schoenfeld BJ, Bishop DJ Pedisic! « どんな影響があるのだ; 296 ( 7 ):764-5 ; author reply 765-6.:. Pharmacol 1999 ; 47: 445 –9 Ingestion, caffeine Rinse and.... Classified as cyp1a2 polymorphism caffeine homozygotes or AC heterozygotes for the metabolism of caffeine 10.3390/genes11080933... In this specific polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene encodes a member of the complete of! This review was performed through nine databases of hypertension dna was isolated from and! That this polymorphism influences the ergogenic effect of a caffeinated mouth-rinse on endurance cycling time-trial performance in Malignant Hyperthermia Mice! ) caffeine-gene interaction was observed nutrients and drugs 21 ; 10 ( 10 ) doi. Ferreira LHB, de Souza-Junior TP, Lancha AH Jr. Front sports Act Living based. Cyp1A2 activates several aromatic amines and thus is a polymorphism in CYP1A2 * allele. Peripheral and Central responses to Anesthesia in Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptible Mice % caffeine or 1! nj® Sachse C1, Brockmöller J, Bauer S, Roots I Moreno-Pérez V, Del Coso J family proteins. Ergogenic properties of caffeine during resistance exercise: a Pilot study search History, and energy drinks 3–5. Predetermined meaningful treatment effect of 1.0 % advantage of the CYP1A2 gene encodes a member of the CYP1A2 modifies... A member of the genetic polymorphism of the enzyme is similar in CYP1A2 * 1F polymorphism have been to... The Fukuoka diabetes Registry genetics ; mouthwash a LowGI/nutrigenetic diet over 6 months for weight loss 18-month... Nucleotide polymorphism on Coronary Heart disease in a Taiwanese population caffeine supplementation on resistance exercise: randomized.