Z., and Prezzi, M. (2011). Microbiol. Mineral carbonation of CO2 (mineral CO2 sequestration) occurs spontaneously on geological time scales and has a high potential for CO2 sequestration (Oelkers et al., 2008). Pollut. country becomes i. ncreasingly important. Effect of silicate slag application on wheat grown under two nitrogen rates. Suvendu Das; Hyo Suk Gwon; Muhammad Israr Khan; Seung Tak Jeong; Pil Joo Kim; Scientific Reports. 164, 73–80. (2017). Chemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties of steel slag. Civil Eng. Effects of ferric iron reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide and methane emissions in a rice soil. Nippon steel and Sumitomo metal technical report no. Adv. Slags contain traces of heavy metals, but the concentrations of heavy metals might not be enough to pose environmental risks (Gwon et al., 2018); however, it is believed that the long-term application of slag fertilizer in agriculture may accumulate heavy metals/metalloids in soil and may cause health risks. The increase of slag recovery and use in different fields of application, such as agriculture, is an imperative way for sustainable development (Ito, 2015). Carbon dioxide sequestration in soils is well recognized as an avenue to mitigate climate change. Global hotspots of soil degradation with a high priority for soil restoration and C sequestration include SSA, central and south Asia, China, the Andean region, the Caribbean, and the acid savannas of South America. It can be postulated that slag fertilizer amendment not only increases soil nutrients per se, but also enriches soil microorganisms that have a beneficial role in nutrient mobilization (e.g., carbon and nitrogen mineralization, phosphorus solubilization, nitrogen fixation, etc.). Front. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01320/full#supplementary-material, Ali, M. A., Lee, C. H., Kim, S. Y., and Kim, P. J. This ongoing soil degradation is decreasing the long-term ability of soils to provide humans with services, including future food production, and is causing environmental harm. “The achievement in improved crop varieties and quality plays an important role in the production of food and hence ensuring food security,” said Johanna Andowa, Director of Research at the Ministry. A. It is well recognized that the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation and thus plays an important role in the biomemetic CO2 sequestration (Bose and Satyanarayana, 2017). Geoderma 213, 185–192. The use of slag fertilizer instead of agricultural lime (limestone) to increase soil pH would eliminate the dissolution of lime as an important source of agricultural CO2 emissions. Silicon, the silver bullet for mitigating biotic and abiotic stress, and improving grain quality, in rice? Loss of crop diversity, decline of pollinators and increased vulnera… It typically involves the dissolution of silicate minerals and subsequent precipitation of stable carbonate minerals (e.g., CaCO3, MgCO3, and FeCO3). 171, 146–156. Likewise, the iron matter of special fertilizer has been used to mitigate the toxicity of heavy metals in soil as well as in the plant. Microbiologists are investigating how the soil microbiome can be harnessed as a tool for sustainable agricultural intensification. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. doi: 10.1038/s41477-018-0108-y, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Bose, H., and Satyanarayana, T. (2017). Declining soil health causes poor crop yields, which in turn adds pressure on the soils as farmers struggle to produce enough food. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05538.x, Singh, B. K., Bardgett, R. D., Smith, P., and Reay, D. S. (2010). With advances in omic techniques, soil microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics have been exploited as early indicators of ecosystem processes for sustainable soil management and agricultural productivity (Shokralla et al., 2012). With the increase in population, the available land to dispose of large amounts of slag in landfill sites is reduced and the disposal cost is becoming increasingly higher. The interplay of microbially mediated and abiotic reactions in the biogeochemical Fe cycle. There are several examples, as follows: as can be stabilized by sorption on Fe oxyhydroxide and also by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates; Cr can be stabilized by the reduction from more mobile and toxic Cr(VI) to less toxic and stable Cr (III); Cu can be stabilized by precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxyhydroxides, iron exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxyhydroxides; and Pb and Zn can be immobilized by phosphorus amendments (Branca and Colla, 2012). Hiltunen, R., and Hiltunen, A. Next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental DNA research. 128, 21–26. Microbiol. Microbiol. Nat. Intensification and concentrating food production in the most productive regions may appear the most efficient way to use the land. Soils 48, 435–442. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). doi: 10.12944/CWE.10.3.29, Das, S., and Adhya, T. K. (2014). This article explores the role of soil in bridging the food security gap with special focus on North Africa. The initiative promotes development and implementation of innovative farming and farm management practices based on system approaches that harness natural resources (through utilisation of crop and soil microbiomes) to sustainably increase farm productivity, food quality and environmental health. In a recent review it is postulated that farming with rock could have a great promise in sequestering carbon in soils (Beerling et al., 2018). Environ. Agriculture significantly contributes to the emission of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), which are two of the most important greenhouse gases responsible for global warming (Das and Adhya, 2014). Although mineral carbonation is thermodynamically favorable, it proceeds very slowly (Oelkers et al., 2008). The term “slag” is used in the specifications of slag silicate fertilizer and slag phosphate fertilizer in the Fertilizer Control Law. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.08.011, Das, S., Jeong, S. T., Das, S., and Kim, P. J. (2012). This one has done well, scoring, We're also able to compare this research output to 81 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. doi: 10.1080/00380768.2015.1041861, Wang, M., Hu, R., Zhao, J., Kuzyakov, Y., and Liu, S. (2016). J. Haz. Identification and elucidation of functional roles of keystone soil microbes that sustain plant health and productivity under slag fertilization could provide a technological breakthrough for a sustainable use of slag in agricultural productivity. Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Microbiology, June 2019. A condition in which people have access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. With China being one of the major global . Higher grain yields in response to silicate fertilization could be attributed to the fact that Si preferentially deposits in the epidermal cell wall and increases physical strength of leaves and leaf-sheaths and help plants to sustain yield by counteracting various biotic and abiotic stresses and increasing plant biomass (Luyckx et al., 2017). Soil Sci. Trends Biotechnol. In a recent study, Song et al. Soils 53, 627–638. Mat. (2006), however, revealed that the long-term application of converter slag significantly increased Cr and V contents in the cultivated layer of soil. In addition, we discuss the problems and environmental concerns in using slag in agriculture. The influence of slag fertilizer on the soil microbiome are diverse and the possible mechanisms of slag-microbes interactions can be as follows: (1) slag fertilizer supplies nutrients not only to the plant but also to soil microorganisms; (2) slag fertilizer modifies soil microbial habitats by improving soil properties (e.g., increasing soil pH) (Gwon et al., 2018), which is essential for nutrient mobilization and microbial growth; (3) silicate fertilizer increases plant photosynthesis (Detmann et al., 2012) and likely increases belowground carbon allocation through root exudates, which eventually triggers soil microbial proliferation and activities; and (4) steel slag enhances heavy metal immobilization in soil (Ning et al., 2016) and thus reduces their bioavailability and toxicity to microbes. (2008). (2018). (2018) reported that the addition of steel slag and biochar in subtropical paddy fields could decrease active SOC pools and enhance soil C sequestration only in the early crop, but not the late crop. The stabilization technique aims at reducing heavy metal and metalloid (e.g., As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn) bioavailability in contaminated soil. E-mail address: chenxp2017@swu.edu.cn. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2008.04.014, Beerling, D. J., Leake, J. R., Long, S. P., Scholes, J. D., Ton, J., Nelson, P. N., et al. Altmetric Badge. We developed an integrated soil–crop system management (ISSM) approach designed to make maximum use of solar radiation and periods with favorable temperatures, and designed for greater synchrony between crop demand for N and its supply from soil, environment, and applied inputs . The proposed mechanisms of slag-microbe interactions need to be experimentally verified and intensive research needs to be conducted to explore the microbial role in soil processes and agricultural productivity. Complete residue removal for fodder and fuel is a norm in south Asia and Africa. Fe(III) fertilization mitigating net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in paddy rice-wheat rotation systems in China. Mol. Besides silicate fertilizer, lime fertilizer has been widely used in acidic soil to neutralize the soil, which helps plants to protect themselves against soil pathogens. All authors contributed to the intellectual input and provided assistance to the manuscript preparation. Soil micro-organisms are vital for soil health and food security. The proposed mechanism of slag-microbe interactions in soil. Effects of steel slag applications on CH4, N2O and the yields of Indonesian rice fields: a case study during two consecutive rice-growing seasons at two sites. Steel slags have been applied as calcium silicate fertilizer in fields where plant-available silicon is deficient in soil. Soil and water. Published on 21 Apr 2020. 29, 2759–2764. Wang et al. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Besides, the slag fertilizer amendment may induce changes in soil enzyme activities that affect soil nutrient mobilization and microbial dynamics. 463638, 1–13. Unlike CH4 emissions, the slag fertilizer effects on N2O emissions from rice cropping systems are contradictory. For a better understanding of the long-term effects of the slag fertilizer amendment in agriculture, further research under diverse soil types and agronomic management practices need to be carried out. 13 Soil management. View all Microbiol. Nat. This necessitates silicate fertilizer amendment in rice cropping systems for sustainable rice cultivation. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.05.018, Ali, M. A., Lee, C. H., Lee, Y. Impact of water and wind on soil and control of soil erosion. Calcareous soil spiked with 5.0% (w/w) slag was amended with humic acid derived from leonardite from 0 to 5.0% (w/w). Front. Fertil. Another demerit of slag fertilizer is that it contains small proportions of N and K, and P (in some slag fertilizer), which are essential nutrients for plant growth. From the perspective of natural resource conservation, environmental protection, and human health safety measures, recycling of slag has drawn the attention of scientists, environmentalists, and policymakers in recent years. Gustavo Teixeira, Module lead at the Breeding Operations and Phenotyping module for CGIAR Excellence in Breeding (EiB), explores how breeding success is inextricably linked to how we address soil degradation on this World Soil Day. (2009b) showed that 4 mol of Fe3+ prevent the generation of 1 mol of CH4. Steel slag amendment impacts on soil microbial communities and activities of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The vicious cycle of deletion in soil organic matter–decline in crop yield–food insecurity–soil and environmental degradation can be broken by improving soil fertility through enhancement of the soil organic matter pool, which requires use of sustainable agricultural technologies for water and nutrients management, including no-till farming, composts and mulching, leguminous … "Human activities are the main source of soil pollution. Agric. The effects of slag fertilizer amendment on the biogeochemical cycling of soil elements that are regulated by soil microbes need to be investigated. Methane emission from soils is regulated by CH4−producing archaea, i.e., methanogens, and CH4-consuming bacteria, i.e., methanotrophs, while N2O emission is mostly regulated by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria (Singh et al., 2010). These beneficial effects of slag fertilization largely rely on the changes in soil microbial habitats and microbial activities. 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