Comparative genome mapping has revealed a high degree of similarity in terms of sequence colinearity between closely related crop species. As a rule, triticale combines the yield potential and grain quality of wheat with the disease and environmental tolerance (including soil conditions) of rye. In F 2 the chromosome number ranged from 27 to 30 with 35.1% of the plants having 28 chromosomes. An important advantage of biotechnology applied to plant breeding is the speeding up of cultivar release that would otherwise take 8–12 years. The prediction of general combining ability of any triticale plant from the performance of its parents is only moderate with respect to grain yield. Octoploid triticale resulted from the hybridisation of hexaploid bread wheat (genomes AABBDD) with rye (genome RR) producing germplasm with a 2n number of 56 after chromosome doubling. Triticale then was viable, though at that point the cost of producing the seeds defeated much of the purpose of producing it. EVOLUTION OF TRITICALE SUBMITTED TO- SUBMITTED BY- DR.KAUSHIK KUMAR PANIGRAHI GOURI PRASAD DASH ASST.PROFESSOR GR-B PLANT BREEDING AND GENETICS ADM NO-45C/15 2. A useful molecular marker known as a simple sequence repeat (SSR) is used in breeding with respect to selection. Rye was much larger, and had more per head, but it doesn't taste as good and is hard for many people to digest, so that it had a reputation of causing gas. In 1873, Alexander Wilson first managed to manually fertilize female wheat flowers[7] (although wind fertilized, grasses are descended from flowering plants and technically still angiosperms) with male rye pollen, but found that the resulting plants were sterile, much the way the offspring of a horse and donkey is an infertile mule. SSR markers are available in wheat and rye, but very few, if any, are available for triticale. [1] Commercially available triticale is almost always a second-generation hybrid, i.e., a cross between two kinds of primary (first-cross) triticales. Merker (1975) reported that the number of rye chromosomes varied from one to seven pairs in 50 hexaploid triticale accessions. ; Shebeski, L.H. This technique is applied rather extensively to wheat. Google Scholar 151. Different wheat breeds have different chromosomes due to hybridization. It is especially difficult to see the expression of rye genes in the background of wheat cytoplasm and the predominant wheat nuclear genome. [27] However, Imperata cylindrica (a grass) was found to be just as effective as maize with respect to the production of DHs in both wheat and triticale.[28]. It suggests the presence of regions of wheat chromosomes 5A and 5B in the rearranged chromosomes, based on distribution patterns of 5S rDNA loci in T . The number of grains per spikelet has an associated low heritability value (de Zumelzú et al. The in vitro culture of anthers and microspores is most often used in cereals, including triticale. The resulting so-called substitution and translocation triticale facilitates the transfer of R-genes. The relationship between the constituent wheat and rye genomes were noted to produce meiotic irregularities, and genome instability and incompatibility presented numerous problems when attempts were made to improve triticale. ARNULF MERKER. Conventional plant breeding has helped establish triticale as a valuable crop, especially where conditions are less favourable for wheat cultivation. This carries with it the aim of changing the genetic structure of the plant population. The website [3] is a valuable resource for marker assisted selection (MAS) protocols relating to R-genes in wheat. 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