Alison and Peter Smithson had met as students at Durham University, where they began a lifelong personal and professional relationship. The dissertation looks into the work of the British architects Alison and Peter Smithson (1928-1993, 1923-2003). Many of the churches built after the Second World War demonstrated a new theological outlook: the Grade II* listed Church of St Paul on Bow Common Lane in east London was designed (1958-60) to prioritise the altar, rather than the priest, placing God at the focus of worship. Dec 27, 2012 - Robin Hood Gardens, Poplar, London, 1967-72 (Alison & Peter Smithson) Peter Smithson on Robin Hood Gardens: "I approach from the north, through the old … if not, don't. Examples of brutalist architecture can be found across Europe, and in the United States, Australia, Israel, Japan, and Brazil. Peter had personally taught the Smithsons. Some people simply don’t like the brutalist aesthetic, and of course they are free to hold that opinion. While HE has the power to list, it’s a pity that HE can’t also force the owners to keep them bright and beautiful. Thereafter, the Smithsons turned their attention to larger questions, especially the need for a new approach to public housing in post-World War II Europe. the stone chosen by the smithsons, the roach bed portland stone, carries its own ornament. This style had a strong position in the architecture of European communist countries for a … Brutalism in architecture Seen in the work of Le Corbusier from the late 1940s with the Unité d’Habitation in Marseilles, the term was first used by Alison Smithson in 1953 for an unexecuted project for a house in Colville Place, Soho in which she described its warehouse aesthetic of bare concrete, brick and wood “as the first exponent of the ‘new brutalism’” in England. Brutalism appeared in the 1950s and lasted roughly until the 1970s. Alison and Peter Smithson, Robin Hood Gardens, 1972 It is not by coincidence that Reyner Banaham, the first critic to theorize Brutalism, headed with the previous quote from Le Corbusier's Vers une Architecture his essay "The New Brutalism" published in Architectural Review in December 1955. Peter and Alison Smithson’s contribution to Brutalism stands truly on its own. Their new concerns resulted in no built works of their own, but their original ideas became profoundly influential. Alison and Peter Smithson, Robin Hood Gardens, 1972 It is not by coincidence that Reyner Banaham, the first critic to theorize Brutalism, headed with the previous quote from Le Corbusier's Vers une Architecture his essay "The New Brutalism" published in Architectural Review in December 1955. Its chronicler, Reyner Banham (The New Brutalism), had little confidence in Brutalism’s future recognition as more than a minor episode in the history of 20th-century architecture. !Therefore,forPeterand Alison!Smithson,!another!fundamental!feature!of!New!Brutalism,! For some reason, communists used to love this style. In every case, the effect was of a kind of peasant or industrial vernacular, using the simplest materials in the simplest ways, applying them to modern programs at modern scale. The term ‘nybrutalism’ was used by the Swedish architect Hans Asplund to describe the Villa Göth in 1950, and was later picked up by visiting British architects. Loved and loathed, revered and reviled: Brutalism remains one of the most controversial and misunderstood architectural styles of the 20th century. Neave Brown’s Grade II* listed scheme for Alexandra Road in North West London reinterpreted the traditional high street, giving every flat a private outdoor space. The Grade II* listed Park Hill Estate in Sheffield is of international importance and was the most ambitious city development of its time: it was Britain’s first completed scheme of post-war slum clearance and rehoused thousands of people. The Smithsons priority was ‘reverence for materials’, be they timber, brick, concrete or glass: a Brutalist building should be constructed from natural materials honestly expressed. […] A Brief Introduction to Brutalism […], […] A Brief Introduction to Brutalism […]. In both the senses, ethical and aesthetic, in which Brutalism came to be viewed, that estimate was too pessimistic. After 1945 the triumph of international modernism seemed certain, and so it came to pass in the most highly industrialized country in the world, the United States, and in the work of architects trained in the 1930s. All of those examples shared an unyielding emphasis on structural clarity, spatial simplicity, and material presence, and all contributed to the solidifying of the character of Brutalism in the general imagination. 1946-1952, the Unite d’Habitation, Marseilles, FRANCE, Le Corbusier, 1949-1953, the Yale Art Gallery Extension, New Haven, USA, Louis Kahn, 1951-1965, the Capitol Complex, Chandigarh, India, Le Corbusier, 1954, Secondary School at Hunstanton, Norfolk, England, Peter and Alison Smithson, 1954, the Maisons Jaoul, Neuilly, FRANCE, Le Corbusier, 1955, the monastery of La Tourette, Eveux-surl’Arbresle, France, Le Corbusier, 1956, the Terrace Housing, Hampstead, ENGLAND, Howell, Howell, and Amis, 1957, the Architect’s House, Remyles-Chevreuses, France, A.Wogenscky, 1958, Langham House Development, Ham Common, ENGLAND, Stirling and Gowan, 1958, the Alder House, Rothrist, Switzerland, Atelier 5, 1959, Architecture School Extension, Cambridge, ENGLAND, Wilson and Hardy, 1959, the Istituto Marchiondi, Milan, Italy, V.Vigano, 1960, a factory, Thun, Switzerland, both by Atelier 5, 1961, Park Hill Development, Sheffield, ENGLAND, Sheffield City Architect, 1961-1963, the Yale Art and Architecture Building, New Haven, USA, Paul Rudolph, 1963, Engineering School Laboratories, Leiceste, ENGLAND, Stirling and Gowan, 1970, The Mummers’ Theater, Oklahoma City, USA, J. Johansen. The next range of Brutalist buildings were to be the works of other young British architects; for example, the Terrace Housing (Howell, Howell, and Amis, Hampstead, 1956), Langham House Development (Stirling and Gowan, Ham Common, 1958), Architecture School Extension (Wilson and Hardy, Cambridge, 1959), Park Hill Development (Sheffield City Architect, Sheffield, 1961), and Engineering School Laboratories (Stirling and Gowan, Leicester, 1963), among others. In England, the term was further adopted by architects Alison and Peter Smithson. Banham, Reyner, The New Brutalism. In 1949 they won an architectural competition for their design for the Hunstanton Secondary Modern School (1949–54) in Norfolk, later seen as an exemplar of Brutalist … The early work of Hugo Haering (Farm Building, Garkau, Germany, 1925), and Antonio Sant’Elia (unbuilt Futurist projects, Italy, c. 1911–14) were acknowledged sources. Soviet Communism, Italian Fascism, and German National Socialism had each claimed leadership of the modern world and had employed architecture as demonstration of its claims. Brutalism, or at least its influence, also traveled to the United States. Before them, the German architects Peter Behrens, Bruno Taut, and Hans Poelzig could be included as forerunners. If building is to be meaningful, should it not embody meaning in itself (social worth)? ... (Peter and Alison Smithson, 1954), which employed what seemed at first glance to be a Miesian aesthetic of pure structural clarity. A common misconception is that the word Brutalism derives from the word brutal: in reality it probably came from the French expression béton brut: French for ‘raw concrete’ and coined by the architect Le Corbusier during the construction of Unité d’Habitation in 1952. 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